In this work polymeric materials were developed to be used as a solvent and heat resistance membrane for different applications.
In ultrafiltration, poly (ether imide sulfone) membranes were manufactured by combining phase inversion and functionalization reaction between epoxy groups and amine modified polyether oligomers (Jeffamine®). Polysilsesquioxanes or oligo silsesquioxanes containing epoxy functionalities were in-situ grown in the casting solution and made available for further reaction with amines in the coagulation/annealing baths. Water permeances up to 1500 l m-2 h-1 bar-1 were obtained with sharp pore size distribution and a pore diameter peak at 66 nm, confirmed by porosimetry, allowing 99.2 % rejection of γ-globulin. The membranes were stable in 50:50 dimethylformamide/water, 50:50 N-methyl pyrrolidone/water and 100 % tetrahydrofuran.
In pervaporation, Novel hydrophobic Hyflon®/Extem® and Hyflon®/PVDF were developed and investigated for ethylene glycol dehydration and n-butanol dehydration respectively. For ethylene glycol different Extem® concentrations were evaluated with regard to both flux and amount of water in the permeate side. Eighteen (18) wt% gave more than 90 wt% water in the permeate. Increasing feed temperature from 25 to 85°C increased the water flux from 31 to 91 g m-2 h-1 when using 5 wt% water in ethylene glycol as feed. The water flux of 40 wt% water:ethylene glycol at 45°C was found to be 350 g m-2 h-1. And for n-butanol dehydration the coating protocols for thin defect-free Hyflon® selective layer on the PVDF support was optimized. Water and n-butanol transport was measured, analyzing the effect of operating conditions. The water flux through the newly developed membranes was higher than 150 g m-2 h-1 with selectivity for water higher than 99 wt%. The membrane application can be extended to other solvents, supporting an effective and simple method for dehydration with hydrophobic membranes.
In membrane distillation, PVDF and Extem® membranes before and after coating with Hyflon® were examined for ionic liquid dehydration on 23.6 mS cm-1 feed concentration. Different feed temperatures and flow rates were evaluated for flux as well as rejection.
High flux was obtained at 70°C and increased at high flow rate from 2 Kg m2 h to 10 Kg m2 h.
|Date of Award
- Biological, Environmental Sciences and Engineering
|Suzana Nunes (Supervisor)
- polymeric membranes
- Membrane Distillation